Übersetzung für 'witch' im kostenlosen Englisch-Deutsch Wörterbuch von LANGENSCHEIDT – mit Beispielen, Synonymen und Aussprache. Übersetzung im Kontext von „the witch“ in Englisch-Deutsch von Reverso Context: the wicked witch. Viele übersetzte Beispielsätze mit "witch" – Deutsch-Englisch Wörterbuch und Suchmaschine für Millionen von Deutsch-Übersetzungen.
Candy Frozen Mania Rated 3. Features The next exciting instalment to the Bubble Witch series of games Match 3 bubbles to pop them in this magical shooting adventure Spellbinding new game modes and cute characters!
Release the owls, free the ghosts and save the Fairy Queen from Wilbur! Additional information Published by king. King, "Bubble Witch 3 Saga" and related marks are trade marks of King.
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But isn't "may not" a mi Which entry are you talking about? Whatever it was, it would have stu Which sentences are correct? Which of these sentences is writte Which sentence is correct and why?
Which sentence should I use? Which wording is correct or better Marketing slogan Please help deciThe Battle of Langensalza was bloody and many Hamelin people died in the wars against Napoleon, ambitiously positioned villages had to be given up, ships sank in the Weser and you could get rid of rivals by declaiming them as witches.. The magical properties ascribed to many such phenomena were often used in traditional medicine.. Es war von einer bösen Hexe mit einem Fluch belegt! Die böse Stiefmutter aber war eine Hexe und hatte wohl gesehen, wie die beiden Kinder fortgegangen waren, war ihnen nachgeschlichen, heimlich, wie die Hexen schleichen, und hatte alle Brunnen im Walde verwünscht.. The journey leads us along the yellow brick road to the shimmering green Emerald City, passing through dark forests to the castle of the wicked witch.. Mikael killed the witch by ripping out her heart. Die Hexe töten, die ihren Platz eingenommen hat. Reverso beitreten Registrieren Einloggen Mit Facebook einloggen. The magical properties ascribed to many such phenomena were often used in traditional medicine. Übersetzung Wörterbuch Rechtschreibprüfung Konjugation Grammatik. Der König liess beide vor Gericht führen, und es ward ihnen das Urteil gesprochen. A wicked old witch did carry me away to a high tower and she did climb up my hair to bring food and water.
Witch deutsch -Bitte versuchen Sie es erneut. The gamer will meet well-known and also invented characters of contemporary history:. There was a witch and she gave me a spell. Warum zieht die grüngesichtige , böse Hexe eine rote Wolke hinter sich her? There was once a woman who was a witch , and she had two daughters, one ugly and wicked , whom she loved the best, because she was her very own daughter, and one pretty and good, whom she hated because she was her step-daughter. Lotto24 de seriös erzählte sie dem König den Frevel, den die böse Hexe und ihre Tochter an ihr verübt hatten. Sie drehen sich jeweils um einen der fünf Hauptcharaktere. Buena Vista Games veröffentlichte ein Videospiel zu W. Britisches Englisch Amerikanisches Englisch witch hazel. Es hat bis Davina noch nie eine allmächtige Hexe gegeben. Zur mobilen Version wechseln.
The goat asks if Thomasin would like to "live deliciously" and materializes into a tall, dark man. He orders Thomasin to remove her clothes and to sign her name in a book that appears.
She replies that she does not know how to sign her name so Black Phillip helps her sign. Thomasin follows Black Phillip, back in goat-form, into the forest, where she joins a coven of witches holding a Witches' Sabbath around a bonfire.
The coven begins to levitate and a laughing and convulsing Thomasin joins them, ascending above the trees. Eggers, a native of New Hampshire, was inspired to write the film by his childhood fascination with witches and frequent visits to the Plimoth Plantation as a schoolboy.
After unsuccessfully pitching films that were "too weird, too obscure", Eggers realized that he would have to make a more conventional film.
Eggers wanted to film the picture on location in New England but the lack of tax incentives meant he had to settle for Canada. The casting took place in England, as Eggers wanted authentic accents to represent a family newly arrived in Plymouth.
In order to give the film an authentic look, Eggers shot only "with natural light and indoors, the only lighting was candles". Eggers also chose to stylize the film's title as "The VVitch" in its title sequence and on posters, stating that he found this spelling in a Jacobean era pamphlet on witchcraft, along with other period texts.
In December , costume designer Linda Muir joined the crew, and consulted 35 books in the Clothes of the Common People in Elizabethan and Early Stuart England series to plan the costumes.
The costumes were made with wool, linen, or hemp. Muir also lobbied for a larger costume budget. Mark Korven wrote the film's score, which aimed to be "tense and dissonant", while focusing on minimalism.
He knew that the director liked to retain a degree of creative control, so he relied on loose play centered on improvisation "so that [Eggers] could move notes around whenever he wanted".
The film had its world premiere at the Sundance Film Festival , on January 27, A24 and DirecTV Cinema acquired distribution rights to the film. A Primal Folktale , which summarizes the cast and crew's making of the film—and a minute question-and-answer session filmed in Salem, Massachusetts featuring director Eggers, lead actress Anya Taylor-Joy, and historians Richard Trask and Brunonia Barry.
The website's critical consensus reads, "As thought-provoking as it is visually compelling, The Witch delivers a deeply unsettling exercise in slow-building horror that suggests great things for debuting writer-director Robert Eggers.
He doesn't need cheap tricks. Eggers merely directs us to look inside. While, at the same time, they combine to create an innately bewitching tale that keeps you on tenterhooks all the way up until its grandiose but enthralling finale.
However, some critics as well as audiences were less pleased with the film; Ethan Sacks, of the New York Daily News , wrote that while the film does not suffer from the cinematography, acting, or setting, early on it "seems that The Witch is tapping a higher metaphor for coming of age It doesn't take long into the film's hour and a half running time, however, to break that spell.
Not because it doesn't fit into the genre of horror, but because of the power of expectations. The less you know about this movie the better your experience will be, but everyone who saw it opening weekend probably walked in with too much knowledge and hype to really get as much out of it as they could have if the film had the veil of mystery.
HitFix writer Chris Eggertson was critical of mainstream Hollywood; he said that The Witch "got under [his] skin profoundly", though he argued that it "did not have the moment-to-moment, audience-pleasing shocks that moviegoers have become accustomed to thanks to movies like Sinister and The Purge and Paranormal Activity and every other Blumhouse and Platinum Dunes title in the canon.
Horror authors Stephen King and Brian Keene both reacted positively towards the film; King tweeted significant praise for the film, stating, " The Witch scared the hell out of me.
In short, the rejection of these films appears to people outside of horror fandom as a rejection of cinema as an art form. Julia Alexander of Polygon states that The Witch "asks people to try and understand what life would have been like for a family of devout Christians living in solitude, terrified of what may happen if they go against the word of God ".
There are occasional references to His mercy but only as something to beg for, not something to trust in". A review by Adam R. Holz on Plugged In , a publication of the conservative Christian organisation Focus on the Family , heavily criticised the film, stating that.
William is absolutely devoted to leading his family in holiness and the ways of the Lord, which should be a good thing.
But the fruit of William's rigorous focus on dogmatic piety isn't a lifting of burdens, which we're told should happen in Matthew Josh Larsen of Think Christian , however, offered a Christian explanation of the conclusion of the film, stating that in "encountering evil, the family in the film veers wildly back and forth between 'triumphalism' and 'defeatism,' two theological extremes" and "in refusing to allow for grace , they become easy pickings for the witch".
A24 could have just as easily courted the approval of, say, theologians who have a fondness for Calvinism. The Witch takes place in Colonial America, and it unfolds from the perspective of period Christians who genuinely believe the woods around their tiny farm contain some sort of evil, supernatural being—and are ultimately proved correct.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. United States Canada  . Film portal Calvinism portal Occult portal New England portal. British Board of Film Classification.
Retrieved February 18, Retrieved May 8, Archived from the original on August 16, Retrieved June 29, Retrieved August 24, Retrieved 29 February Retrieved February 12, Retrieved February 9, Robert Eggers on The Witch ".
Retrieved April 17, Retrieved July 22, Retrieved 26 September Bright Lights Film Journal. Retrieved 24 March Retrieved 24 July Retrieved 5 August Retrieved February 16, Retrieved September 28, Archived from the original on January 24, Retrieved February 27, Retrieved February 20, Retrieved May 7, Retrieved May 17, Retrieved April 13, Retrieved September 8, Retrieved February 21, Retrieved April 26, A Supercreepy New England Folktale".
Beware of High Expectations". Retrieved April 26, — via Twitter. A terrifying tale of depravity". Retrieved February 23, I Am Michael , executive produced by Gus Van Sant , tells the true story of Michael Glatze played by James Franco , a former gay activist who denounced homosexuality and became a Christian pastor.
Other films like Z for Zachariah and Me, Earl, and the Dying Girl subtly draw on questions and motifs that animate Biblical narratives and questions.
Retrieved March 5, Retrieved February 28, Spanish Inquisitors viewed witchcraft as a problem that could be cured simply through confession. Yet, as anthropologist Ruth Behar writes, witchcraft, not only in Mexico but in Latin America in general, was a "conjecture of sexuality, witchcraft, and religion, in which Spanish, indigenous, and African cultures converged.
In modern history, notoriety has been awarded to a place called Catemaco , in the state of Veracruz, which has a history of witchcraft, and where the practice of witchcraft by contemporary brujos and brujas thrives.
Belief in the supernatural is strong in all parts of India , and lynchings for witchcraft are reported in the press from time to time.
Apart from other types of Violence against women in Nepal , the malpractice of abusing women in the name of witchcraft is also really prominent.
According to the statistics in , there was a total of 69 reported cases of abuse to women due to accusation of performing witchcraft.
The perpetrators of this malpractice are usually neighbors, so-called witch doctors and family members.
According to the statistics by INSEC,  the age group of women who fall victims to the witchcraft violence in Nepal is 20— In Japanese folklore, the most common types of witch can be separated into two categories: The fox witch is, by far, the most commonly seen witch figure in Japan.
Differing regional beliefs set those who use foxes into two separate types: The first of these, the kitsune-mochi , is a solitary figure who gains his fox familiar by bribing it with its favourite foods.
The kitsune-mochi then strikes up a deal with the fox, typically promising food and daily care in return for the fox's magical services. The fox of Japanese folklore is a powerful trickster in and of itself, imbued with powers of shape changing, possession, and illusion.
These creatures can be either nefarious; disguising themselves as women in order to trap men, or they can be benign forces as in the story of "The Grateful foxes".
A fox under the employ of a human can provide many services. The fox can turn invisible and find secrets its master desires. It can apply its many powers of illusion to trick and deceive its master's enemies.
The most feared power of the kitsune-mochi is the ability to command his fox to possess other humans.
This process of possession is called Kitsunetsuki. By far, the most commonly reported cases of fox witchcraft in modern Japan are enacted by tsukimono-suji families, or "hereditary witches".
These foxes serve the family and are passed down through the generations, typically through the female line. Tsukimono-suji foxes are able to supply much in the way of the same mystical aid that the foxes under the employ of a kitsune-mochi can provide its more solitary master with.
In addition to these powers, if the foxes are kept happy and well taken care of, they bring great fortune and prosperity to the Tsukimono-suji house.
However, the aid in which these foxes give is often overshadowed by the social and mystical implications of being a member of such a family.
In many villages, the status of local families as tsukimono-suji is often common, everyday knowledge. Such families are respected and feared, but are also openly shunned.
Due to its hereditary nature, the status of being Tsukimono-suji is considered contagious. Because of this, it is often impossible for members of such a family to sell land or other properties, due to fear that the possession of such items will cause foxes to inundate one's own home.
In addition to this, because the foxes are believed to be passed down through the female line, it is often nearly impossible for women of such families to find a husband whose family will agree to have him married to a tsukimono-suji family.
In such a union the woman's status as a Tsukimono-suji would transfer to any man who married her. Witchcraft in the Philippines is often classified as malevolent, with practitioners of black magic called Mangkukulam in Tagalog and Mambabarang in Cebuano ; there are also practitioners of benevolent, white magic, in addition to some who practise both.
Mambabarang in particular are noted for their ability to command insects and other invertebrates to accomplish a task, such as delivering a curse to a target.
Practitioners of traditional herbal-based medicine and divination called albularyo are not considered witches. They are perceived to be either quack doctors or a quasi-magical option when western medicine fails to identify or cure an ailment that is thus suspected to be of supernatural, often malevolent, origin.
Feng shui , an influence of Filipino Chinese culture, is also not classified as witchcraft as it is considered a separate realm of belief altogether.
Saudi Arabia continues to use the death penalty for sorcery and witchcraft. Saudi authorities also pronounced the death penalty on a Lebanese television presenter, Ali Hussain Sibat , while he was performing the hajj Islamic pilgrimage in the country.
In April , a Saudi woman Amina Bint Abdulhalim Nassar was arrested and later sentenced to death for practicing witchcraft and sorcery.
In December , she was beheaded. In June , Yahoo reported: An expedition sent to what is now the Xinjiang region of western China by the PBS documentary series Nova found a fully clothed female Tocharian mummy wearing a black conical hat of the type now associated with witches in Europe in the storage area of a small local museum, indicative of an Indo-European priestess.
Witchcraft in Europe between — was believed to be a combination of sorcery and heresy. While sorcery attempts to produce negative supernatural effects through formulas and rituals, heresy is the Christian contribution to witchcraft in which an individual makes a pact with the Devil.
In addition, heresy denies witches the recognition of important Christian values such as baptism, salvation, Christ and sacraments. In Early Modern European tradition, witches were stereotypically, though not exclusively, women.
The peak years of witch-hunts in southwest Germany were from to It was commonly believed that individuals with power and prestige were involved in acts of witchcraft and even cannibalism.
The familiar witch of folklore and popular superstition is a combination of numerous influences. The characterization of the witch as an evil magic user developed over time.
Early converts to Christianity looked to Christian clergy to work magic more effectively than the old methods under Roman paganism, and Christianity provided a methodology involving saints and relics, similar to the gods and amulets of the Pagan world.
As Christianity became the dominant religion in Europe, its concern with magic lessened. The Protestant Christian explanation for witchcraft, such as those typified in the confessions of the Pendle witches , commonly involves a diabolical pact or at least an appeal to the intervention of the spirits of evil.
The witches or wizards engaged in such practices were alleged to reject Jesus and the sacraments ; observe " the witches' sabbath " performing infernal rites that often parodied the Mass or other sacraments of the Church ; pay Divine honour to the Prince of Darkness ; and, in return, receive from him preternatural powers.
It was a folkloric belief that a Devil's Mark, like the brand on cattle, was placed upon a witch's skin by the devil to signify that this pact had been made.
Witches disrupted the societal institutions, and more specifically, marriage. It was believed that a witch often joined a pact with the devil to gain powers to deal with infertility, immense fear for her children's well-being, or revenge against a lover.
They were also depicted as lustful and perverted, and it was thought that they copulated with the devil at the Sabbath.
The Church and European society were not always so zealous in hunting witches or blaming them for misfortunes. Saint Boniface declared in the 8th century that belief in the existence of witches was un-Christian.
The emperor Charlemagne decreed that the burning of supposed witches was a pagan custom that would be punished by the death penalty. In the Bishop of Lyon and others repudiated the belief that witches could make bad weather, fly in the night, and change their shape.
This denial was accepted into Canon law. Other rulers such as King Coloman of Hungary declared that witch-hunts should cease because witches more specifically, strigas do not exist.
The Church did not invent the idea of witchcraft as a potentially harmful force whose practitioners should be put to death.
This idea is commonplace in pre-Christian religions. According to the scholar Max Dashu, the concept of medieval witchcraft contained many of its elements even before the emergence of Christianity.
Powers typically attributed to European witches include turning food poisonous or inedible, flying on broomsticks or pitchforks, casting spells, cursing people, making livestock ill and crops fail, and creating fear and local chaos.
However, even at a later date, not all witches were assumed to be harmful practicers of the craft. In England, the provision of this curative magic was the job of a witch doctor , also known as a cunning man , white witch , or wise man.
The term "witch doctor" was in use in England before it came to be associated with Africa. Toad doctors were also credited with the ability to undo evil witchcraft.
Other folk magicians had their own purviews. Girdle-measurers specialised in diagnosing ailments caused by fairies, while magical cures for more mundane ailments, such as burns or toothache, could be had from charmers.
In the north of England, the superstition lingers to an almost inconceivable extent. Lancashire abounds with witch-doctors, a set of quacks, who pretend to cure diseases inflicted by the devil The witch-doctor alluded to is better known by the name of the cunning man, and has a large practice in the counties of Lincoln and Nottingham.
Historians Keith Thomas and his student Alan Macfarlane study witchcraft by combining historical research with concepts drawn from anthropology.
Older women were the favorite targets because they were marginal, dependent members of the community and therefore more likely to arouse feelings of both hostility and guilt, and less likely to have defenders of importance inside the community.
Witchcraft accusations were the village's reaction to the breakdown of its internal community, coupled with the emergence of a newer set of values that was generating psychic stress.
In Wales, fear of witchcraft mounted around the year There was a growing alarm of women's magic as a weapon aimed against the state and church.
The Church made greater efforts to enforce the canon law of marriage, especially in Wales where tradition allowed a wider range of sexual partnerships.
There was a political dimension as well, as accusations of witchcraft were levied against the enemies of Henry VII, who was exerting more and more control over Wales.
The records of the Courts of Great Sessions for Wales, — show that Welsh custom was more important than English law. Custom provided a framework of responding to witches and witchcraft in such a way that interpersonal and communal harmony was maintained, Showing to regard to the importance of honour, social place and cultural status.
Even when found guilty, execution did not occur. Becoming king in , James I Brought to England and Scotland continental explanations of witchcraft.
His goal was to divert suspicion away from male homosociality among the elite, and focus fear on female communities and large gatherings of women.
He thought they threatened his political power so he laid the foundation for witchcraft and occultism policies, especially in Scotland. The point was that a widespread belief in the conspiracy of witches and a witches' Sabbath with the devil deprived women of political influence.
Occult power was supposedly a womanly trait because women were weaker and more susceptible to the devil. In Helen Duncan was the last person in Britain to be imprisoned for fraudulently claiming to be a witch.
There have even been child murders associated with witchcraft beliefs. The problem is particularly serious among immigrant or former immigrant communities of African origin but other communities, such as those of Asian origin are also involved.
Step children and children seen as different for a wide range of reasons are particularly at risk of witchcraft accusations.
Lack of awareness among social workers, teachers and other professionals dealing with at risk children hinders efforts to combat the problem.
The Metropolitan Police said there had been 60 crimes linked to faith in London so far [in ]. It saw reports double from 23 in to 46 in Half of UK police forces do not record such cases and many local authorities are also unable to provide figures.
The NSPCC said authorities "need to ensure they are able to spot the signs of this particular brand of abuse".
London is unique in having a police team, Project Violet, dedicated to this type of abuse. Its figures relate to crime reports where officers have flagged a case as involving abuse linked to faith or belief.
Many of the cases involve children. There is a 'money making scam' involved. Pastors accuse a child of being a witch and later the family pays for exorcism.
As in most European countries, women in Italy were more likely suspected of witchcraft than men. In the 16th century, Italy had a high portion of witchcraft trials involving love magic.
Professional prostitutes were considered experts in love and therefore knew how to make love potions and cast love related spells.
She was also not seen as a model citizen because her husband was in Venice. From the 16thth centuries, the Catholic Church enforced moral discipline throughout Italy.
Franciscan friars from New Spain introduced Diabolism, belief in the devil, to the indigenous people after their arrival in In pre-Christian times, witchcraft was a common practice in the Cook Islands.
The native name for a sorcerer was tangata purepure a man who prays. All these prayers were metrical, and were handed down from generation to generation with the utmost care.
There were prayers for every such phase in life; for success in battle; for a change in wind to overwhelm an adversary at sea, or that an intended voyage be propitious ; that his crops may grow; to curse a thief; or wish ill-luck and death to his foes.
Few men of middle age were without a number of these prayers or charms. The succession of a sorcerer was from father to son, or from uncle to nephew.
So too of sorceresses: Sorcerers and sorceresses were often slain by relatives of their supposed victims. A singular enchantment was employed to kill off a husband of a pretty woman desired by someone else.
The expanded flower of a Gardenia was stuck upright—a very difficult performance—in a cup i. A prayer was then offered for the husbands speedy death, the sorcerer earnestly watching the flower.
Should it fall the incantation was successful. But if the flower still remained upright, he will live. The sorcerer would in that case try his skill another day, with perhaps better success.
According to Beatrice Grimshaw , a journalist who visited the Cook Islands in , the uncrowned Queen Makea was believed to have possessed the mystic power called mana , giving the possessor the power to slay at will.
It also included other gifts, such as second sight to a certain extent, the power to bring good or evil luck , and the ability already mentioned to deal death at will.
A local newspaper informed that more than 50 people were killed in two Highlands provinces of Papua New Guinea in for allegedly practicing witchcraft.
Pagan practices formed a part of Russian and Eastern Slavic culture; the Russian people were deeply superstitious. The witchcraft practiced consisted mostly of earth magic and herbology; it was not so significant which herbs were used in practices, but how these herbs were gathered.
Ritual centered on harvest of the crops and the location of the sun was very important. Spells also served for midwifery, shape-shifting, keeping lovers faithful, and bridal customs.
Spells dealing with midwifery and childbirth focused on the spiritual wellbeing of the baby. Her sweat would be wiped from her body using raw fish, and the fish would be cooked and fed to the groom.
Demonism, or black magic, was not prevalent. Persecution for witchcraft, mostly involved the practice of simple earth magic, founded on herbology, by solitary practitioners with a Christian influence.
In one case investigators found a locked box containing something bundled in a kerchief and three paper packets, wrapped and tied, containing crushed grasses.
While these customs were unique to Russian culture, they were not exclusive to this region. Russian pagan practices were often akin to paganism in other parts of the world.
The Chinese concept of chi , a form of energy that often manipulated in witchcraft, is known as bioplasma in Russian practices.
Spoilers could be made by gathering bone from a cemetery, a knot of the target's hair, burned wooden splinters and several herb Paris berries which are very poisonous.
Placing these items in sachet in the victim's pillow completes a spoiler. The Sumerians, Babylonians, Assyrians, and the ancient Egyptians recognized the evil eye from as early as 3, BCE; in Russian practices it is seen as a sixteenth-century concept.
The dominant societal concern those practicing witchcraft was not whether paganism was effective, but whether it could cause harm. Impotence, stomach pains, barrenness, hernias, abscesses, epileptic seizures, and convulsions were all attributed to evil or witchcraft.
This is reflected in linguistics; there are numerous words for a variety of practitioners of paganism-based healers. Ironically enough, there was universal reliance on folk healers — but clients often turned them in if something went wrong.
According to Russian historian Valerie A. Kivelson, witchcraft accusations were normally thrown at lower-class peasants, townspeople and Cossacks.
People turned to witchcraft as a means to support themselves. Males were targeted more, because witchcraft was associated with societal deviation.
Because single people with no settled home could not be taxed, males typically had more power than women in their dissent.
The history of Witchcraft had evolved around society. More of a psychological concept to the creation and usage of Witchcraft can create the assumption as to why women are more likely to follow the practices behind Witchcraft.
There is analyzed social and economic evidence to associate between witchcraft and women. Witchcraft trials occurred frequently in seventeenth-century Russia, although the "great witch-hunt" is believed [ by whom?
However, as the witchcraft-trial craze swept across Catholic and Protestant countries during this time, Orthodox Christian Europe indeed partook in this so-called "witch hysteria.
Very early on witchcraft legally fell under the jurisdiction of the ecclesiastical body, the church, in Kievan Rus' and Muscovite Russia.
The sentence for an individual found guilty of witchcraft or sorcery during this time, and in previous centuries, typically included either burning at the stake or being tested with the "ordeal of cold water" or judicium aquae frigidae.
Accused persons who submerged were considered innocent, and ecclesiastical authorities would proclaim them "brought back," but those who floated were considered guilty of practicing witchcraft, and burned at the stake or executed in an unholy fashion.
The thirteenth-century bishop of Vladimir, Serapion Vladimirskii, preached sermons throughout the Muscovite countryside, and in one particular sermon revealed that burning was the usual punishment for witchcraft, but more often the cold water test was used as a precursor to execution.
Although these two methods of torture were used in the west and the east, Russia implemented a system of fines payable for the crime of witchcraft during the seventeenth century.
Thus, even though torture methods in Muscovy were on a similar level of harshness as Western European methods used, a more civil method was present.
In the introduction of a collection of trial records pieced together by Russian scholar Nikolai Novombergsk, he argues that Muscovite authorities used the same degree of cruelty and harshness as Western European Catholic and Protestant countries in persecuting witches.
Tsar Ivan IV reigned — took this matter to the ecclesiastical court and was immediately advised that individuals practicing these forms of witchcraft should be excommunicated and given the death penalty.
So, during the Oprichnina — , Ivan IV succeeded in accusing and charging a good number of boyars with witchcraft whom he did not wish to remain as nobles.
Rulers after Ivan IV, specifically during the Time of Troubles — , increased the fear of witchcraft among themselves and entire royal families, which then led to further preoccupation with the fear of prominent Muscovite witchcraft circles.
After the Time of Troubles, seventeenth-century Muscovite rulers held frequent investigations of witchcraft within their households, laying the ground, along with previous tsarist reforms, for widespread witchcraft trials throughout the Muscovite state.
Witches have a long history of being depicted in art, although most of their earliest artistic depictions seem to originate in Early Modern Europe, particularly the Medieval and Renaissance periods.
Many scholars attribute their manifestation in art as inspired by texts such as Canon Episcopi , a demonology-centered work of literature, and Malleus Maleficarum , a "witch-craze" manual published in , by Heinrich Kramer and Jacob Sprenger.
Canon Episcopi , a ninth-century text that explored the subject of demonology, initially introduced concepts that would continuously be associated with witches, such as their ability to fly or their believed fornication and sexual relations with the devil.
The text refers to two women, Diana the Huntress and Herodias, who both express the duality of female sorcerers.
Diana was described as having a heavenly body and as the "protectress of childbirth and fertility" while Herodias symbolized "unbridled sensuality".
They thus represent the mental powers and cunning sexuality that witches used as weapons to trick men into performing sinful acts which would result in their eternal punishment.
These characteristics were distinguished as Medusa-like or Lamia-like traits when seen in any artwork Medusa's mental trickery was associated with Diana the Huntress's psychic powers and Lamia was a rumored female figure in the Medieval ages sometimes used in place of Herodias.
One of the first individuals to regularly depict witches after the witch-craze of the medieval period was Albrecht Dürer , a German Renaissance artist.
His famous engraving The Four Witches , portrays four physically attractive and seductive nude witches. Their supernatural identities are emphasized by the skulls and bones lying at their feet as well as the devil discreetly peering at them from their left.
The women's sensuous presentation speaks to the overtly sexual nature they were attached to in early modern Europe.
Moreover, this attractiveness was perceived as a danger to ordinary men who they could seduce and tempt into their sinful world.
Dürer also employed other ideas from the Middle Ages that were commonly associated with witches. Specifically, his art often referred to former 12th- to 13th-century Medieval iconography addressing the nature of female sorcerers.
In the Medieval period, there was a widespread fear of witches, accordingly producing an association of dark, intimidating characteristics with witches, such as cannibalism witches described as "[sucking] the blood of newborn infants"  or described as having the ability to fly, usually on the back of black goats.
As the Renaissance period began, these concepts of witchcraft were suppressed, leading to a drastic change in the sorceress' appearances, from sexually explicit beings to the 'ordinary' typical housewives of this time period.
This depiction, known as the 'Waldensian' witch became a cultural phenomenon of early Renaissance art. The term originates from the 12th-century monk Peter Waldo, who established his own religious sect which explicitly opposed the luxury and commodity-influenced lifestyle of the Christian church clergy, and whose sect was excommunicated before being persecuted as "practitioners of witchcraft and magic".
Subsequent artwork exhibiting witches tended to consistently rely on cultural stereotypes about these women. These stereotypes were usually rooted in early Renaissance religious discourse, specifically the Christian belief that an "earthly alliance" had taken place between Satan's female minions who "conspired to destroy Christendom".
Another significant artist whose art consistently depicted witches was Dürer's apprentice, Hans Baldung Grien, a 15th-century German artist.
His chiaroscuro woodcut, Witches , created in , visually encompassed all the characteristics that were regularly assigned to witches during the Renaissance.
Social beliefs labeled witches as supernatural beings capable of doing great harm, possessing the ability to fly, and as cannibalistic.
Meanwhile, their nudity while feasting is recognized as an allusion to their sexual appetite, and some scholars read the witch riding on the back of a goat-demon as representative of their "flight-inducing [powers]".
This connection between women's sexual nature and sins was thematic in the pieces of many Renaissance artists, especially Christian artists, due to cultural beliefs which characterized women as overtly sexual beings who were less capable in comparison to men of resisting sinful temptation.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Witchcraft disambiguation and Witch disambiguation.
Folk religion , Magical thinking , and Shamanism. Neoshamanism and Modern paganism. Satanism and Satanism and Witchcraft.
Witchcraft and divination in the Hebrew Bible. Christian views on magic. It is not to be confused with Djembe. Witchcraft accusations against children in Africa.
Human rights in ISIL-controlled territory. European witchcraft and Witch trials in Early Modern Europe. Witch trials in early modern Scotland.
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